Carbon capture consists in recovering the CO2 emitted during industrial processes. Carbon capture has been commonplace in industry for decades, in particular to provide industrial companies with carbon (e.g., agri-food industry for the production of carbonated beverages, greenhouse growers) or for enhanced oil recovery. Several capture processes exist, depending on the nature of the flue gases to be treated (composition, temperature, pressure). These processes fall into three major categories: post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxycombustion.
Pre-combustion capture consists of capturing CO2 before fuel is combusted. To this end, the fuel is gasified to produce syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO). In the presence of water vapour, CO reacts with water (H2O) to produce hydrogen and CO2. Concentrated CO2 is subsequently separated using a solvent.
Carbon is captured after combustion by scrubbing flue gases with a solvent.
Oxy-combustion consists of producing CO2 concentrated flue gases by burning fuel in the presence of pure oxygen instead of air. The high concentration of CO2 subsequently facilitates the separation of CO2 from water vapour with witch it is mixed.
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